Causes of infertility

Causes of infertility in men

  • Smaller volume of the ejaculate,
  • low sperm count,
  • reduced sperm motility,
  • sperm shape defects,
  • lack of sperm production,
  • formation of antibodies against his own sperm,
  • varicocele,
  • changing hormonal levels,
  • infections in the reproductive system.

The causes of infertility in women

  • Hormonal disorders,
  • changes in the anatomy of the genital organs,
  • endometriosis,
  • immunological factor,
  • anti-sperm antibodies,
  • PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome).

Examination of the infertility causes in men


Sperm (ejaculate) sample processing – is one of the basic methods of assisted reproduction. When processing the ejaculate, the number and the quality of sperm of the patient are determined – spermiogram. The general medical history may than help determine the treatment strategy in couples suffering from infertility or sterility. The procedures for ejaculate processing are also used in the preparation of suspensions of sperm in the standard cycle of IUI, IVF, ICSI, IMSI or PICSI.

Sperm parameters are evaluated according to the WHO standards. The following values are compared: sample volume, sperm concentration and motility, sperm morphology and other factors that are relevant for determining further therapeutic procedures.

Normal values of seminogram according to WHO

Colour: grey, opalescent
Volume: > 1.5 ml
Agglutination: Grade 0-1
Concentration: ≥15 mil/ml
Motility: ≥ 40%
Progressive motility: ≥ 32%
Morphology: ≥4% of normal forms

WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen - 5th ed. © World Health Organization 2010.

We also provide the detection of anti-sperm antibodies and the morphological quality of sperm at 6000x magnification, instead of the common 400x at conventional laboratories without the IMSI technique.

Examination of the infertility causes in women

The correct diagnosis and recommendation of the most suitable method of treatment for infertility in specific couples require the following basic examinations.

Medical history

Information about the condition of the patient and her family help reveal or at least direct the search for the causes of infertility. Family history can point to genetic disorders. Personal history can reveal e.g. post-inflammatory damage to internal organs and gynaecological history is similarly capable of detecting e.g. disturbances in the menstrual cycle due to the maturation of eggs.

Basic ultrasound and physical examination

These examinations include the inspection of the ovaries, uterus, cervix clearness and accurate verification of the length of the uterine cavity. These tests are necessary to exclude serious ovarian cysts, endometriosis, birth defects of internal genitals or uterine lining polyps.

Furthermore, the female hormone levels are examined relative to the phase of the menstrual cycle and repeated verification of good thyroid function, testosterone, prolactin or AMH is performed. Expert level Gynecological Ultrasound examination with 3D visualization is very important. This non-invasive method, without hysteroscopy or laparoscopy, may often reveal anatomical disorders, endometriosis or blocked fallopian tubes, but also a reduced capacity of the ovaries or defects in the blood supply.

Both partners undergo mandatory serological tests for infectious diseases (HIV 1 and 2, HBV, HCV, syphilis).

Contact us

FertiCare SE
Radlická 3185/1c , Praha 5, 150 00

Our clinics:
FertiCare Karlsbad Fertility:
Bělehradská 1042/14, Karlovy Vary
FertiCare Prague:
Radlická 3185/1c, Praha 5

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